In 1924 the first TIG patent was registered. From then on, its use has been continuous, given its proven quality and effectiveness to weld all metals.
TIG welding is a system that welds successfully, including those difficult to weld metals.
A skilled operator with the proper welding technique will achieve homogeneous and beautiful welds.
Tungsten Arc Welding
Although this translates into Spanish, this type of welding is commonly referred to as TIG, the acronym for Tungsten Inert Gas.
Similarly, it is usual among experts in the area to call it GTAW welding and the English Gas Tungsten Arc Welding.
Its acronym or name in Spanish does not neglect to name Tungsten.
This welding occurs based on this chemical element.
Its use is in a non-consumable electrode to direct the current to the welding arc.
Represented with the letter W, since it is also known as Tungsten, Tungsten is characterized by its silvery-white color and excellent hardness.
The way to fuse it is only reaching 3,422 degrees. It is the highest melting temperature among the chemical elements.
What characterizes TIG welding?
In appearance, she does not vary from other welding processes. Holding the welder or torch with one hand and a rod in the other next to the use of gloves, welding helmet, and protective clothing is what is observed before a TIG procedure.
It is a procedure where fusion is achieved thanks to a non-consumable electrode and a protective gas.
This protective gas is usually argon. It works by wrapping molten material and tungsten electrodes, ensuring no oxidation.
In addition to these characteristics, there are other points of TIG welding :
- Its application occurs in all metals.
- It is an essentially manual process that demands operator expertise, given its difficulty in the procedure.
- An electric arc causes the heat source. With this, the electrodes degrade less due to the lower temperature. The appropriate type of electric current is continuous and alternating, although the most usual is the continuous one.
- The type of electrode to be used is non-consumable.
- It is a procedure protected by inert gas to prevent electrode contamination. Due to its low thermal conductivity and good stability, argon is the most used gas. However, in specific situations, Helium and mixtures of Argon-Helium or Argon-Hydrogen are also among the possibilities.
- It makes possible the union of virtually all metals. No fusion defects are perceived with mastery of the technique, but a quality weld.
- TIG welds are solid and resistant to corrosion
- The heat input and the addition of filler metal can be controlled separately, and the penetration of the root passage weld.
- Unlike another arc welding, there are no sparks or splashes.
- The use of input material is only for specific applications.
In the opinion of experts, the advantages of TIG welding exceed their possible disadvantages.
However, it is necessary to take them into account.
It requires taking care of specific parameters to obtain the highest quality in the final welding so that the knowledge and skill of those who try it must be accurate.
Another aspect is its cost, considered relatively high.
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Good preparation before welding
The first thing is to have the necessary equipment.
The DC or AC power generator, the high frequency or pulse generator, the gas circuit, the cooling circuit, and the electrode holder must be available.
The selection of the correct tungsten electrode is of the utmost importance.
To choose it, there are two factors to consider: the thickness of the material and amperage to be used in welding.
Based on this information, the choice of electrode diameter and length will be appropriate. However, before being introduced into the clamp, the tip of the tungsten rod must be ground, making it rounded or pointed.
Then you choose the configuration of electricity, cleaning-penetration, air on, maximum amps, and gas.
A trained operator knows that his protective equipment is mandatory to avoid burns and even blindness. If it is prepared, then the next step is to weld. The welding table must be ready, a comprehensive and transparent table.
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The welding bath is started with the pressure of the pedal that is adjusted to size. Treading hard or lightening the pedal will achieve the perfect fusion in both pieces of metal.
TIG welding shows several ways. Fillet welding is considered the simplest and joins two metals at a right angle.
When two metals are leaning against each other, it is known as back welding.
One of the most complicated is the so-called butt welding. In it, the edges of the metals are those that touch.
The strength welds are those strong welds at points that do not merit being seen, and the cosmetics are those of beauty and smooth finish.
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Recommendations for the technique
- The distance between the electrode and the piece must be taken care of. The Tungsten must be avoided touching the sample. If it happens, it will be evidenced by a different sound and color, so it will be necessary to clean its end to continue. The practice will prevent this and be more stable.
- For the best protection of welding, the ideal inclination angle of the electrode holder is 90 degrees.
- Knowing what material or alloy will be welded is vital to selecting the proper input material.
- When gathering the material that is thought to be correct, it is worth doing test welds. It is highly recommended when the piece and the fabric are high cost. It is better to be able to make rectifications on time.
- A critical recommendation is care in cleaning before welding. A soft, clean, dry, lint-free cloth will help prevent contamination of the weld. This will avoid double labor or waste of material.
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